How our immune system forms the right antibody?


Answer from: Romina G.:
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Let's look at this process as an example of the development of a bacterial infection. For example, you scratch your finger. When skin damage occurs, bacteria are most likely to enter the wound. When any tissue in the body is damaged, an inflammatory reaction is initiated immediately. Damaged cells secrete a number of different substances called cytokines, to which neutrophils and macrophages are very sensitive. Reacting to cytokines, they penetrate through capillary walls, "swim" to the place of injury and begin to absorb and digest bacteria in the wound - this is how non-specific immunity kicks in, but it has not yet come to the synthesis of antibodies.
Dispersing bacteria, macrophages bring different pieces of bacteria to their surface to introduce T-helper and B-lymphocytes to the structure of these bacteria. This process is called antigen presentation. T-helper and B-lymphocytes examine pieces of digested bacteria and select the appropriate structure of the antibody so that it then "adheres" well to the same bacteria. This triggers specific humoral immunity. This is quite a long process, so the first contact with the infection may take up to two weeks for the body to pick up the structure and start synthesizing the right antibodies.
After that, the successful B-lymphocyte turns into a plasma cell and starts synthesizing antibodies in large numbers. These enter the bloodstream, spread throughout the body, and bind to all infiltrating bacteria, causing their death. In addition, bacteria with attached antibodies are much faster absorbed by macrophages, which also contributes to the destruction of the infection.

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